The People of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts hereby declare it necessary and expedient to alter the Constitution by the adoption of the following Article of Amendment:-
With just compensation paid, private property may be taken only when necessary for the possession, occupation and enjoyment of land by the public at large, or by public agencies. Except for the privately owned public utilities or common carries, private property shall not be taken for private commercial enterprise, for economic development or for any other private use, except with the consent of the owner. Property shall not be taken from one owner and transferred to another, on the grounds that the public will benefit from a more profitable private use. Whenever an attempt is made to take property for a use alleged to be public, the question whether the contemplated use is truly public shall be a judicial question, and determined as such without regard to any legislative assertion that the use is public.
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