SENATE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . No. 2299
The Commonwealth of Massachusetts
Senate, July 23, 2014.
BILL #: S796
BILL STATUS: Favorable with Amendment
For the committee,
STEPHEN M. BREWER
SENATE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . No. 2299
The Commonwealth of Massachusetts
In the Year Two Thousand Fourteen
updating privacy protections for personal electronic information.
Whereas, The deferred operation of this act would tend to defeat its purpose, which is to protect forthwith the privacy of personal electronic information, therefore, it is hereby declared to be an emergency law, necessary for the immediate preservation of the public convenience.
Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives in General Court assembled, and by the authority of the same, as follows:
SECTION 1. Section 1B of chapter 276 of the General Laws, as appearing in the 2012 Official Edition, is hereby amended by inserting after the definition of “Electronic communication services” the following definition:-
“Electronic device”, any device that enables access to or use of an electronic communication service, remote computing service or location information service.
SECTION 2. Said section 1B of said chapter 276, as so appearing, is hereby further amended by inserting after the definition of “foreign corporation” the following 2 definitions:-
“Location information”, any information concerning the location of an electronic device that, in whole or in part, is generated by or derived from the operation of the device.
“Location information service”, a global positioning service or other mapping, locational or directional information service.
SECTION 3. Said section 1B of said chapter 276, as so appearing, is hereby further amended by striking out subsection (b) and inserting in place thereof the following subsection:-
(b) A court or justice authorized to issue warrants in criminal cases may, upon complaint on oath that the complainant believes that particular identified records or information described in this subsection are actually or constructively possessed by a Massachusetts or foreign corporation that provides electronic communication services, remote computing services or location information services, and such records or information constitute evidence of or the means or instrumentalities of the commission of a specified criminal offense under the laws of the commonwealth, if satisfied that there is probable cause for such beliefs, issue a warrant identifying the records to be searched for and commanding the person making the application for the warrant to properly serve the warrant upon the corporation and take all other actions prescribed by this section. In identifying the information to be searched, the following shall, if relevant, be described in the warrant: (i) records which would reveal the identity of a customer using the services; (ii) data stored by or on behalf of a customer; (iii) records of a customer’s usage of the services; (iv) records of the source of communications sent to or the recipient or destination of communications sent from a customer; (v) the content of the communications stored by an electronic communication or remote computing service; or (vi) location information.
SECTION 4. Said section 1B of said chapter 276, as so appearing, is hereby further amended by striking out subsection (c) and inserting in place thereof the following subsection:-
(c) The following provisions shall apply to any search warrant issued pursuant to this section and to any subpoena issued in the course of a criminal investigation or proceeding directed to a Massachusetts or foreign corporation that provides electronic communication services, remote computing services or location information services:
(i) when properly served with a search warrant issued by any court of the commonwealth or justice pursuant to this section or a subpoena, a corporation subject to this section shall provide all records sought pursuant to the warrant or subpoena within 14 days of receipt, including the records maintained or located outside of the commonwealth;
(ii) if the applicant makes a showing and the court or justice finds that failure to produce records within less than 14 days would cause an adverse result, a warrant may require production of records within less than 14 days;
(iii) a court or justice may reasonably extend the time required for production of the records upon a finding that the corporation has shown good cause for the extension and that an extension of time would not cause an adverse result;
(iv) a corporation seeking to quash a warrant or subpoena served on it pursuant to this section shall seek relief from the court that issued the warrant or the court which has jurisdiction over the subpoena within the time required for production of records pursuant to this section. The court shall hear and decide the motion not later than 14 days after the motion is filed;
(v) in the case of an administrative subpoena issued by the attorney general, the superior court of Suffolk county shall have jurisdiction and, in the case of an administrative subpoena issued by a district attorney, the superior court in any county in which the district attorney maintains an office shall have jurisdiction; and
(vi) the corporation shall verify the authenticity of records that it produces by providing an affidavit from the custodian of the records which certifies that the records are true and complete.
SECTION 5. Said section 1B of said chapter 276, as so appearing, is hereby further amended by adding the following 7 subsections:-
(f) A search warrant issued pursuant to this section shall designate the corporation or other entity in possession of the records or data sought and shall describe with particularity the record systems and information to be provided. A search warrant shall be issued in the form and manner prescribed in sections 2A½ and 2B and shall be directed to the government office or public official making the application for the warrant who shall serve the warrant upon the corporation or other entity.
(g) Not later than 7 days after the information in clauses (i) to (vi), inclusive, of subsection (b) is obtained by a government office or public official pursuant to this section, the government office or public official shall serve upon, or deliver by registered or first-class mail, electronic mail or other means reasonably calculated to be effective as specified by the court issuing the warrant to, the customer or subscriber a copy of the warrant, a copy of the application for the warrant and notice informing the customer or subscriber of the following: (i) the nature of the law enforcement inquiry with reasonable specificity; (ii) information maintained for the customer or subscriber by the provider of an electronic communications service, remote computing service or location information service was requested by or supplied to the government office or public official and a description of the information; (iii) the dates on which the request was made and on which the information was supplied; (iv) whether notification of the customer or subscriber was delayed under subsection (h); and (v) which court made the certification or determination under which the delay was made, if applicable.
(h) A government office or public official may include in its application for a warrant a request for an order delaying the notification required under subsection (g) for a period not to exceed 90 days. The court shall issue the order if it determines that there is reason to believe that notification of the existence of the warrant may have an adverse result. Upon expiration of any period of delay granted pursuant to this subsection, the government office or public official shall provide the customer or subscriber with a copy of the warrant and the notice required pursuant to, and by the means described in, said subsection (g).
(i) A government office or public official may include in its application for a warrant a request for an order directing a corporation on which a warrant is served not to notify any other person of the existence of the warrant for a period of not more than 90 days. The court shall issue the order if it determines that there is reason to believe that notification of the existence of the warrant may have an adverse result.
(j) The court may, upon application, grant 1 or more extensions of orders granted under subsections (h) and (i) for an additional 90 days.
(k) Notwithstanding any general or special law to the contrary, a government office or public official may obtain the information in clauses (i) to (vi), inclusive, of subsection (b):
(i) with the express consent of the owner or user of the electronic communications device concerned;
(ii) in order to respond to the user’s call for emergency services; or
(iii) if the government office or public official reasonably believes that an emergency involving immediate danger of death or serious physical injury to any person requires obtaining information relating to the emergency without delay; provided, however, that the request is narrowly tailored to address the emergency and subject to the following limitations:
(A) the request shall document the factual basis for believing that an emergency involving immediate danger of death or serious physical injury to a person requires obtaining the information relating to the emergency without delay; and
(B) not later than 48 hours after the government office or public official obtains access to the records, the government office or public official shall file with the appropriate court a signed, sworn statement of a supervisory official of a rank designated by the head of the office setting forth the grounds for the emergency access.
(l) Except in a judicial proceeding alleging a violation of this section, no information obtained in violation of this section shall be admissible in any criminal, civil, administrative or other proceeding.
SECTION 6. Chapter 276 is hereby further amended by inserting after section 2A the following section:-
Section 2A½. A warrant for records or data from a corporation providing electronic communication services, remote computing services or location information services shall be in substantially the following form:
THE COMMONWEALTH OF MASSACHUSETTS.
(COUNTY), ss. (NAME) COURT.
To the Sheriffs of our several counties, or their deputies, any State Police Officer, or any Constable or Police Officer of any city or town, within our said Commonwealth.
Proof by affidavit having been made this day before (name of person authorized to issue warrant) by (names of person or persons whose affidavits have been taken) that there is probable cause for believing that certain records or data in the possession of (identify corporation) constitute evidence of or the means or instrumentalities of the commission of (specified criminal offense under the laws of the commonwealth).
We therefore command you to present this warrant to (identify corporation), which warrant shall operate as an order for immediate disclosure of the following records or data:
(description of records or data),
and if any such records or data are disclosed to bring it before (court having jurisdiction) at (name of court and location).
Dated at (city or town) this __________ day of __________, (insert year).
SECTION 7. The second paragraph of section 2B of said chapter 276, as appearing in the 2012 Official Edition, is hereby amended by striking out subparagraphs 3 and 4 of the affidavit and inserting in place thereof the following subparagraphs:-
3. Based upon the foregoing reliable information (and upon my personal knowledge) there is probable cause to believe that the property, records or data hereinafter described (has been stolen, or is being concealed, or constitutes evidence of a particular offense, etc.) and may be found (in the possession of A.B. or any other person or corporation) at premises (identify).
4. The (property, records or data) for which I seek the issuance of a search warrant is the following: (here describe the property, records or data as particularly as possible).
SECTION 8. Section 3A of said chapter 276, as so appearing, is hereby amended by inserting after the word “search”, in line 1, the following words:- or to obtain electronic communication, remote computing or location information records.
SECTION 9. Said section 3A of said chapter 276, as so appearing, is hereby further amended by striking out, in line 6, the word “search”.
SECTION 10. The court administrator in the office of court management within the trial court shall study and evaluate the costs and feasibility of establishing an electronic system to record the number of applications for warrants authorizing or requiring the disclosure of information described in clauses (i) to (vi), inclusive, of subsection (b) of section 1B of chapter 276 of the General Laws. The court administrator shall submit a report detailing the costs associated with the implementation of the system and any recommendations to the clerks of the senate and house of representatives and the house and senate chairs of the joint committee on the judiciary by January 1, 2015.