- Minor Civil Divisions (MCD): Includes cities, towns, and villages.
- Voting Tabulation Districts (VTD): Wards inside MCDs, election districts in rural areas.
- Census Blocks (CNS): The smallest unit of census geography, normally bounded on all sides by visible features such as city or county limits, property lines, and imaginary extensions of roads.
Partisan Gerrymandering: The deliberate drawing of district boundaries to secure an advantage for one political party.
Racial Gerrymandering: The deliberate drawing of district boundaries to secure an advantage for one race.
Section 2: Prohibits the adoption of voting standards or practices that abridge the right to vote on the basis of race or language group. This section applies to all states and other governmental units and may be used to challenge a redistricting plan that discriminates against a racial or language minority group.