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  • PART I ADMINISTRATION OF THE GOVERNMENT
  • TITLE IX TAXATION
  • CHAPTER 63 TAXATION OF CORPORATIONS
  • Section 31I Transactions with related members; adding back of certain deductions

Section 31I. (a) As used in this section, the following words shall, unless the context requires otherwise, have the following meanings:—

“Code”, the federal Internal Revenue Code as amended and in effect for the taxable year.

“Intangible expenses and costs”, includes (1) expenses, losses and costs for, related to, or in connection directly or indirectly with the direct or indirect acquisition, use, maintenance or management, ownership, sale, exchange, or any other disposition of intangible property to the extent such amounts are allowed as deductions or costs in determining taxable income before operating loss deductions and special deductions for the taxable year under the Code; (2) losses related to, or incurred in connection directly or indirectly with, factoring transactions or discounting transactions; (3) royalty, patent, technical and copyright fees; (4) licensing fees; and (5) other similar expenses and costs.

“Intangible property”, patents, patent applications, trade names, trademarks, service marks, copyrights, mask works, trade secrets and similar types of intangible assets.

“Interest expenses and costs”, amounts directly or indirectly allowed as deductions under section 163 of the Code for purposes of determining taxable income under the Code to the extent such expenses and costs are directly or indirectly for, related to, or in connection with the direct or indirect acquisition, maintenance, management, ownership, sale, exchange or disposition of intangible property.

“Related member”, a person that, with respect to the taxpayer during all or any portion of the taxable year, is: (1) a related entity, (2) a component member as defined in subsection (b) of section 1563 of the Code; (3) a person to or from whom there is attribution of stock ownership in accordance with subsection (e) of section 1563 of the Code; or (4) a person that, notwithstanding its form of organization, bears the same relationship to the taxpayer as a person described in (1) to (3), inclusive.

“Related entity”, (1) a stockholder who is an individual, or a member of the stockholder’s family set forth in section 318 of the Code if the stockholder and the members of the stockholder’s family own, directly, indirectly, beneficially or constructively, in the aggregate, at least 50 per cent of the value of the taxpayer’s outstanding stock; (2) a stockholder, or a stockholder’s partnership, limited liability company, estate, trust or corporation, if the stockholder and the stockholder’s partnerships, limited liability companies, estates, trusts and corporations own directly, indirectly, beneficially or constructively, in the aggregate, at least 50 per cent of the value of the taxpayer’s outstanding stock; or (3) a corporation, or a party related to the corporation in a manner that would require an attribution of stock from the corporation to the party or from the party to the corporation under the attribution rules of the Code if the taxpayer owns, directly, indirectly, beneficially or constructively, at least 50 per cent of the value of the corporation’s outstanding stock. The attribution rules of the Code shall apply for purposes of determining whether the ownership requirements of this definition have been met.

(b) For purposes of computing its net income under this chapter, a taxpayer shall add back otherwise deductible interest expenses and costs and intangible expenses and costs directly or indirectly paid, accrued or incurred to, or in connection directly or indirectly with one or more direct or indirect transactions with, one or more related members.

(c) (i) The adjustments required in subsection (b) shall not apply if: (A) the taxpayer establishes by clear and convincing evidence, as determined by the commissioner, that the adjustments are unreasonable; or (B) the taxpayer and the commissioner agree in writing to the application or use of an alternative method of apportionment under section 42. Nothing in this subsection shall be construed to limit or negate the commissioner’s authority to otherwise enter into agreements and compromises otherwise allowed by law.

(ii) The adjustments required in subsection (b) shall not apply to the portion of interest expenses and costs and intangible expenses and costs that the taxpayer establishes by a preponderance of the evidence meets both of the following: (A) the related member during the same taxable year directly or indirectly paid, accrued or incurred such portion to a person that is not a related member, and (B) the transaction giving rise to the interest expenses and costs or the intangible expenses and costs between the taxpayer and the related member did not have as a principal purpose the avoidance of any portion of the tax that would be otherwise due.

(d) Nothing in this section shall be construed to limit or negate the commissioner’s authority to make adjustments under sections 33 and 39A.