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  • PART I ADMINISTRATION OF THE GOVERNMENT
  • TITLE XXII CORPORATIONS
  • CHAPTER 156D BUSINESS CORPORATIONS

Section 1.01 - Short Title

Section 1.02 - Reservation of power to amend or repeal

Section 1.20 - Filing requirements

Section 1.21 - Forms

Section 1.22 - Filing, service and copying fees

Section 1.23 - Effective time and date of document

Section 1.24 - Correcting filed document

Section 1.25 - Filing duty of secretary of state

Section 1.26 - Appeal from secretary of state’s refusal to file document

Section 1.27 - Evidentiary effect of copy of filed document

Section 1.28 - Certificates regarding corporations

Section 1.29 - Penalty for signing false document

Section 1.30 - Powers

Section 1.40 - Chapter definitions

Section 1.41 - Notice

Section 1.42 - Number of shareholders

Section 1.50 - Interpretation of chapter

Section 2.01 - Incorporators

Section 2.02 - Articles of organization

Section 2.03 - Incorporation

Section 2.04 - Liability for pre-incorporation transactions

Section 2.05 - Organization of corporation

Section 2.06 - Bylaws

Section 2.07 - Emergency bylaws

Section 3.01 - Purposes

Section 3.02 - General powers

Section 3.03 - Emergency powers

Section 3.04 - Ultra vires

Section 4.01 - Corporate name

Section 4.02 - Reserved name

Section 5.01 - Registered office and registered agent

Section 5.02 - Change of registered office or registered agent

Section 5.03 - Resignation of registered agent

Section 5.04 - Service on corporation

Section 6.01 - Authorized shares

Section 6.02 - Determination of terms of class or series

Section 6.03 - Issued and outstanding shares

Section 6.04 - Fractional shares

Section 6.20 - Subscription for shares before incorporation

Section 6.21 - Issuance of shares

Section 6.22 - Liability of shareholders

Section 6.23 - Share dividends

Section 6.24 - Share options

Section 6.25 - Form and content of certificates

Section 6.26 - Shares without certificates

Section 6.27 - Restriction on transfer of shares and other securities

Section 6.30 - Shareholders’ preemptive rights

Section 6.31 - Corporation’s acquisition of its own shares

Section 6.40 - Distributions to shareholders

Section 6.41 - Liability for improper distributions

Section 7.01 - Annual meeting

Section 7.02 - Special meeting

Section 7.03 - Court-ordered meeting

Section 7.04 - Action without meeting

Section 7.05 - Notice of meeting

Section 7.06 - Waiver of notice

Section 7.07 - Record date

Section 7.08 - Meetings by remote communications; remote participation in meetings

Section 7.20 - Shareholders list for meeting

Section 7.21 - Voting entitlement of shares

Section 7.22 - Proxies

Section 7.23 - Shares held by nominees

Section 7.24 - Corporation’s acceptance of votes

Section 7.25 - Quorum and voting requirements for voting groups

Section 7.26 - Action by single and multiple voting groups

Section 7.27 - Greater or lesser quorum or voting requirements for shareholders

Section 7.28 - Voting for directors; cumulative voting

Section 7.29 - Form of shareholder action

Section 7.30 - Voting trusts

Section 7.31 - Voting agreements

Section 7.32 - Shareholder agreements

Section 7.40 - Subdivision definitions

Section 7.41 - Standing

Section 7.42 - Demand

Section 7.43 - Stay of proceedings

Section 7.44 - Dismissal

Section 7.45 - Discontinuance or settlement

Section 7.46 - Payment of expenses

Section 7.47 - Applicability to foreign corporations

Section 8.01 - Requirement for and duties of board of directors

Section 8.02 - Qualifications of directors

Section 8.03 - Number and election of directors

Section 8.04 - Election of directors by certain classes of shareholders

Section 8.05 - Terms of directors generally

Section 8.06 - Staggered terms for directors

Section 8.07 - Resignation of directors

Section 8.08 - Removal of directors

Section 8.09 - [There is no 156D:8.09.]

Section 8.10 - Vacancy on board

Section 8.11 - Compensation of directors

Section 8.20 - Meetings

Section 8.21 - Action without meeting

Section 8.22 - Notice of meeting

Section 8.23 - Waiver of notice

Section 8.24 - Quorum and voting

Section 8.25 - Committees

Section 8.30 - General standards for directors

Section 8.31 - Director conflict of interest

Section 8.32 - Loans to directors

Section 8.40 - Required officers

Section 8.41 - Duties of officers

Section 8.42 - Standards of conduct for officers

Section 8.43 - Resignation and removal of officers

Section 8.44 - Contract rights of officers

Section 8.45 - Certificate of change in officers or directors

Section 8.46 - Instruments affecting real estate

Section 8.50 - Subdivision definitions

Section 8.51 - Permissible indemnification

Section 8.52 - Mandatory indemnification

Section 8.53 - Advance for expenses

Section 8.54 - Court-ordered indemnification and advance for expenses

Section 8.55 - Determination and authorization of indemnification

Section 8.56 - Officers

Section 8.57 - Insurance

Section 8.58 - Variation by corporate action; application of subchapter

Section 8.59 - Exclusivity of subdivision

Section 9.20 - Domestication

Section 9.21 - Action on a plan of domestication

Section 9.22 - Articles of domestication

Section 9.23 - Surrender of charter upon domestication

Section 9.24 - Effect of domestication

Section 9.25 - Abandonment of a domestication

Section 9.30 - Nonprofit conversion

Section 9.31 - Action on a plan of nonprofit conversion

Section 9.32 - Articles of nonprofit conversion

Section 9.33 - Surrender of charter upon foreign nonprofit conversion

Section 9.34 - Effect of nonprofit conversion

Section 9.35 - Abandonment of a nonprofit conversion

Section 9.40 - Foreign nonprofit domestication and conversion

Section 9.41 - Articles of domestication and conversion

Section 9.42 - Effect of foreign nonprofit domestication and conversion

Section 9.43 - Abandonment of a foreign nonprofit domestication and conversion

Section 9.50 - Entity conversion authorized; definitions

Section 9.51 - Plan of entity conversion

Section 9.52 - Action on a plan of entity conversion

Section 9.53 - Articles of entity conversion

Section 9.54 - Surrender of charter upon conversion

Section 9.55 - Effect of entity conversion

Section 9.56 - Abandonment of an entity conversion

Section 10.01 - Authority to amend

Section 10.02 - Amendment before issuance of shares

Section 10.03 - Amendment by board of directors and shareholders; exception

Section 10.04 - Voting on amendments by voting groups

Section 10.05 - Amendment by board of directors

Section 10.06 - Articles of amendment

Section 10.07 - Restated articles of organization

Section 10.08 - Effect of amendment

Section 10.20 - Amendment by board of directors or shareholders

Section 10.21 - Bylaw dealing with quorum or voting requirements for shareholders

Section 10.22 - Bylaw dealing with quorum or voting requirements for board of directors

Section 11.01 - Definitions

Section 11.02 - Merger

Section 11.03 - Share exchange

Section 11.04 - Action on a plan of merger or share exchange

Section 11.05 - Merger between parent and subsidiary or between subsidiaries

Section 11.06 - Articles of merger or share exchange

Section 11.07 - Effect of merger or share exchange

Section 11.08 - Abandonment of a merger or share exchange

Section 12.01 - Sale of assets in regular course of business and mortgage of assets

Section 12.02 - Sale of assets other than in regular course of business

Section 13.01 - Definitions

Section 13.02 - Right to appraisal

Section 13.03 - Assertion of rights by nominees and beneficial owners

Section 13.20 - Notice of appraisal rights

Section 13.21 - Notice of intent to demand payment

Section 13.22 - Appraisal notice and form

Section 13.23 - Perfection of rights; right to withdraw

Section 13.24 - Payment

Section 13.25 - After-acquired shares

Section 13.26 - Procedure if shareholder dissatisfied with payment or offer

Section 13.30 - Court action

Section 13.31 - Court costs and counsel fees

Section 14.01 - Dissolution by incorporators or initial directors

Section 14.02 - Dissolution by board of directors and shareholders, or otherwise in accordance with articles of organization

Section 14.03 - Articles of dissolution

Section 14.04 - Revocation of dissolution

Section 14.05 - Effect of dissolution

Section 14.06 - Known non-contingent claims against dissolved corporation

Section 14.07 - Unknown claims against dissolved corporation

Section 14.08 - Creation of reserves as adequate provision for unasserted product liability claims and known contingent claims against dissolved corporation

Section 14.09 - Enforcement of claims against dissolved corporation

Section 14.20 - Grounds for administrative dissolution

Section 14.21 - Procedure for and effect of administrative dissolution

Section 14.22 - Reinstatement following administrative dissolution

Section 14.23 - Appeal from denial of reinstatement

Section 14.30 - Grounds for judicial dissolution

Section 14.31 - Procedure for judicial dissolution

Section 14.32 - Receivership or custodianship

Section 14.33 - Decree of dissolution

Section 14.34 - Reorganization under a statute of the United States; effectuation

Section 14.40 - Deposit with treasurer of the commonwealth

Section 15.01 - Authority to transact business required

Section 15.02 - Consequences of transacting business without authority

Section 15.03 - Delivering certificate by foreign corporation

Section 15.04 - Amended certificate

Section 15.05 - Effect of filing of certificate

Section 15.06 - Corporate name of foreign corporation

Section 15.07 - Registered office and registered agent of foreign corporation

Section 15.08 - Change of registered office or registered agent of foreign corporation

Section 15.09 - Resignation of registered agent of foreign corporation

Section 15.10 - Liability to be sued; service on foreign corporation

Section 15.11 - False reports or statements

Section 15.20 - Withdrawal of foreign corporation

Section 15.21 - Automatic withdrawal upon certain conversions

Section 15.22 - Withdrawal upon conversion to a nonfiling entity

Section 15.23 - Transfer of authority

Section 15.30 - Grounds for revocation

Section 15.31 - Procedure for and effect of revocation

Section 15.32 - Appeal from revocation

Section 16.01 - Corporate records

Section 16.02 - Inspection of records by shareholders

Section 16.03 - Scope of inspection right

Section 16.04 - Court-ordered inspection

Section 16.05 - Inspection of records by directors

Section 16.06 - Exception to notice requirement; consequences of inability to deliver notice

Section 16.20 - Financial statement for shareholders

Section 16.21 - By-law amendments

Section 16.22 - Annual report for secretary of state

Section 17.01 - Application to existing domestic corporations

Section 17.02 - Application to qualified foreign corporations

Section 17.03 - Saving provisions

Section 17.04 - Severability