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  • PART II REAL AND PERSONAL PROPERTY AND DOMESTIC RELATIONS
  • TITLE I TITLE TO REAL PROPERTY
  • CHAPTER 183A CONDOMINIUMS
  • Section 5 Interest in common areas or facilities; percentage; division

Section 5. (a) Each unit owner shall be entitled to an undivided interest in the common areas and facilities in the percentage set forth in the master deed. Such percentage shall be in the approximate relation that the fair value of the unit on the date of the master deed bears to the then aggregate fair value of all the units and may include determinations of whether and how to weigh a restriction relating to value imposed on 1 or more, but fewer than all, units by covenant, agreement or otherwise.

(b)(1) The percentage of the undivided interest of each unit owner in the common areas and facilities as expressed in the master deed shall not be altered without the consent of all unit owners whose percentage of the undivided interest is materially affected, expressed in an amendment to the master deed duly recorded; provided, however, that the acceptance and recording of the unit deed shall constitute consent by the grantee to the addition of subsequent units or land or both to the condominium and consent to the reduction of the undivided interest of the unit owner if the master deed at the time of the recording of the unit deed provided for the addition of units or land and made possible an accurate determination of the alteration of each unit’s undivided interest that would result therefrom; and provided, further, that readjustment of 1 or more unit’s percentage interest solely to reflect release or termination of a restriction previously imposed on the unit by covenant, agreement or otherwise that was a factor for reduction of that percentage interest, with proportionate adjustment only to each other unit’s percentage interest, if not otherwise provided for in the master deed, may be made by vote of 75 per cent or such other percentage of unit owners as is required to amend the master deed generally, whichever is less, and the consent of 51 per cent of the number of all mortgagees holding first mortgages on units within the condominium who have given notice of their desire to be notified as provided in clause (5) of section 4 is obtained; provided further, that any such re-adjustment shall be effective on the date the amendment is recorded in the appropriate registry of deeds or land registration office or such later date as may be stated in the amendment; and provided further, that in the case of readjustment following expiration of a term of years stated in the restriction, that readjustment shall be effective on the date as aforesaid or 1 year after termination of the restriction, whichever is later. The percentage of the undivided interest in the common areas and facilities shall not be separated from the unit to which it appertains, and shall be deemed to be conveyed or encumbered with the unit even though such interest is not expressly mentioned or described in the conveyance or other instrument. The granting of an easement by the organization of unit owners, or the designation or allocation by the organization of unit owners of limited common areas and facilities, or the withdrawal of a portion of the common areas and facilities, all as provided for in this subsection, shall not be deemed to affect or alter the undivided interest of any unit owner.

(2) The organization of unit owners, acting by and through its governing body, shall have the power and authority, as attorney in fact on behalf of all unit owners from time to time owning units in the condominium, except as provided in this subsection, to:

(i) Grant, modify and amend easements through, over and under the common areas and facilities, and to accept easements benefiting the condominium, and portions thereof, and its unit owners, including, without limitation, easements for public or private utility purposes, as the governing body of the organization shall deem appropriate; provided, however, that the consent of at least 51 per cent of the number of all mortgagees holding first mortgages on units within the condominium who have requested to be notified thereof, as provided in subsection (5) of section 4 is first obtained; and provided, further, that at the time of creation of such easement and at the time of modification or amendment of any such easement, such easement and any such modification or amendment shall not be inconsistent with the peaceful and lawful use and enjoyment of the common condominium property by the owners thereof. Such grant, modification, amendment, or acceptance shall be effective on the thirtieth day following the recording, within the chain of title of the master deed, of an instrument duly executed by the governing body of the organization of unit owners setting forth the grant, modification, amendment or acceptance with specificity, and reciting compliance with the requirements of this subsection.

(ii) Grant to or designate for any unit owner the right to use, whether exclusively or in common with other unit owners, any limited common area and facility, whether or not provided for in the master deed, upon such terms as deemed appropriate by the governing body of the organization of unit owners; provided, however, that consent has been obtained from (a) all owners and first mortgagees of units shown on the recorded condominium plans as immediately adjoining the limited common area or facility so designated and (b) 51 per cent of the number of all mortgagees holding first mortgages on units within the condominium who have given notice of their desire to be notified thereof as provided in subsection (5) of section 4. In such case as the limited common area or facility shall directly and substantially impede access to any unit, the consent of the unit owner of such unit and its first mortgagee, if such mortgagee has requested notice as aforesaid, shall also be required. Such grant or designation, and the acceptance thereof, shall be effective 30 days following the recording, within the chain of title of the master deed or of the declaration of trust or by-laws, of an instrument duly executed by the governing body of the organization of unit owners and the grantee or designee and his mortgagees, which instrument shall accurately designate, depict and describe the area affected and the rights granted and designated, and shall recite compliance with the requirements of this subsection. Such grant or designation shall be considered an appurtenance to the subject unit and shall be deemed to be conveyed or encumbered with the unit even though such interest is not expressly mentioned or described in the conveyance or other instrument.

(iii) Extend, revive or grant rights to develop the condominium, including the right to add additional units or land to the condominium; provided, however, that the rights to add additional units are set forth in or specifically authorized by the master deed, and, notwithstanding any provision in section 19 to the contrary, withdraw any portion of the common area of the condominium upon which, at the time of said withdrawal, no unit has been added to the condominium in accordance with the master deed; and provided further, that said withdrawal is not specifically prohibited by the master deed. Any action taken pursuant to this subparagraph shall be taken upon such terms and conditions as the organization of unit owners may deem appropriate, including the method or formula by which the percentage interest of each unit is to be set in accordance with subsection (a) of section 5, or in accordance with another method which the organization of unit owners reasonably determines is fair and equitable under the circumstances, following such extension, revival, grant, addition or withdrawal if not specified in the master deed; provided further, that the consent thereto, including the terms and conditions thereof, of not less than 75 per cent of owners of units within the condominium, or such lower percentage, if any, as the master deed may provide, and 51 per cent of the number of all mortgagees holding first mortgages on units within the condominium who have given notice of their desire to be notified thereof as provided in subsection (5) of section 4 is obtained for such extension, revival, grant, addition or withdrawal. Any action taken pursuant to this subparagraph may be taken even if the time period for adding land, units or common facilities, or for withdrawal has expired. The withdrawal of common areas pursuant to this subparagraph shall not be deemed to affect the percentage interest of each unit. Such extension, revival, grant, addition or withdrawal shall be effective 30 days after the recording, within the chain of title of the master deed or of the declaration of trust or by-laws, of an instrument duly executed by the organization of unit owners setting forth accurately the extension, revival, grant, addition or withdrawal, and reciting compliance with the requirements of this subsection; and

(iv) Sell, convey, lease or mortgage any rights or interest created as a result of exercise of rights established under subparagraph (iii); provided, however, that any proceeds obtained by the organization of unit owners as a result of such sale, conveyance, lease, or mortgage may be paid by the organization of unit owners for common expenses of the condominium, and otherwise shall be distributed in accordance with subparagraph (iii) of subsection (a) of section (6), or in accordance with another method which the organization of unit owners reasonably determines is fair and equitable under the circumstances. The provisions of paragraph (2) shall not affect the rights reserved by the declarant in the master deed except to the extent such rights have expired.

Any consent required by this subsection shall be deemed to be given if, upon written notice by certified and first class mail, provided by the governing body of the organization of unit owners of a proposed action hereunder, to the unit owner or mortgagee whose consent is required, such unit owner or mortgagee fails to object within 60 days of the date of mailing of such notice. The consent of each mortgagee, to the extent required hereunder, shall be counted separately as to each unit upon which such mortgagee holds a mortgage, based upon one vote for each unit. In no event may a consent required of a mortgagee under this subsection be withheld unless the interests of the mortgagee would be materially impaired by the action proposed. In the event of any conflict between the provisions of this subsection and of the master deed, trust or by-laws or other governing documents of the condominium, this subsection shall control. Any third party interested in title to said condominium or condominium unit or units may conclusively rely upon the recitation of compliance contained within any instrument recorded pursuant to this subsection.

(c) The common areas and facilities shall remain undivided and no unit owner or any other person shall bring any action for partition or division of any part thereof, except as provided in sections seventeen, eighteen and nineteen. The use of limited common areas and facilities may be designated by the organization of unit owners in the same manner as set forth herein relative to the granting of easements; provided, however, that such designation shall take the form of an amendment to the master deed, executed by said organization and the unit owner or owners to whom the designation is made, upon the written consent of the owner or owners of the unit or units directly abutting the limited common area and facility or whose unit or units are directly affected thereby and upon the payment by the unit owner to whom the designation is being granted of the reasonable costs of the preparation, execution and the recordation thereof. Said amendment shall be recorded in the appropriate registry of deeds or land registration office in the names of the parties and the condominium. Nothing contained herein shall be construed to require the consent of one hundred percent of the beneficial interest and the mortgagees to the granting of an easement by the organization of unit owners, or the designation or allocation of limited common areas and facilities. Except as expressly provided herein, the provisions hereof may not be varied by agreement and rights conferred hereby may not be waived. In the event of a conflict between this section and the master deed, or declaration of trust, or bylaws of any condominium submitted to the provisions of this chapter, the language hereof shall control. Any covenant or provision to the contrary shall be null and void.

(d) Each unit owner may use the common areas and facilities in accordance with their intended purposes without being deemed thereby to be hindering or encroaching upon the lawful rights of the other unit owners.

(e) The necessary work of maintenance, repair and replacement of the common areas and facilities shall be carried out as provided in the by-laws.

(f) Unless the by-laws otherwise provide, whenever the common areas and facilities shall require emergency works of repair, replacement or maintenance, any unit owner may undertake the same at his expense and recover his reasonable costs as a common expense.

(g) No work which would jeopardize the soundness or safety of the building shall be done in a unit or in the common areas and facilities unless in every such case the unanimous consent of all unit owners is first obtained.