Dispute over the rights and privileges granted under the Charter of 1630 led to its revocation in 1684, leaving Massachusetts without any of its former land rights or the right to govern independently. The charters of other colonies were also annulled, and Sir Edmund Andros was appointed by the crown to govern over all. His despotic rule eliminated representative government.
In 1689, however, William of Orange led the successful overthrow of King James II. Word of this reached Boston which quickly took up arms. Fearing an uprising, Andros, who resided in town, retreated to Fort Hill where he was arrested without incident, and the "bloodless restoration" of the rights of Massachusetts citizens was achieved April 19, 1689. The Second Charter for the Province of Massachusetts Bay was issued in 1691.