Section 142A. The department of environmental protection, referred to in this section and in sections one hundred and forty-two B through one hundred and forty-two M, inclusive, as the department may from time to time adopt regulations, pursuant to this section and sections one hundred and forty-two B through one hundred and forty-two M, inclusive, to prevent pollution or contamination of the atmosphere. Whoever violates any such regulation or any permit or plan approval or order issued thereunder: (a) shall be punished for each violation by a fine of not more than twenty-five thousand dollars, or by imprisonment for not more than one year, or both such fine and imprisonment; or (b) shall be subject to a civil penalty of not more than twenty-five thousand dollars for each violation. Each day or part thereof that such violation occurs or continues shall be a separate violation. The civil penalty may be assessed in an action brought on behalf of the commonwealth in the superior court. The commonwealth may also bring an action for injunctive relief in the superior court for any such violation, and the superior court shall have jurisdiction to enjoin such violation and to grant such further relief as it may deem appropriate.